ttylinux is a small, minimal Linux distribution. It is freely available as a bootable CD-ROM image. The build system of shell scripts and configuration files that build the bootable CD-ROM image is also freely available.
This document provides information about using and installing ttylinux. The audience of this document should be comfortable with using the Bash command line.
The word ttylinux has no capital letters, ever. "TTYlinux", "TTY-Linux", "TtyLinux", "Ttylinux" and all other usages of a capital letter or extra symbol are wrong. When spoken, ttylinux sounds like "t - t - y - linux".
Using the ttylinux build distribution for building ttylinux is beyond the scope of this document. The build distribution has a short text file describing how to build ttylinux. When available, the Developer Guide describes building ttylinux.
This User Guide is primarily for the PC platform ttylinux availble for the i486, and is somewhat applicable to the i686 and x86_64 PC variants. This User Guide is also usefull for understanding the basics of the other ttylinux variants.
ttylinux tries to use as little space as possible and be a familiar and complete command-line Linux system, with fairly up-to-date Linux kernel and program utilities. It provides multi-tasking, multi-user Linux with networking capabilities in no more than 8 MB of disk space. It is prepared for Internet access by Ethernet. A text-based web browser, command-line remote login secure client and server, NFS client, FTP server, and TFTP server are a part of ttylinux.
ttylinux can be installed onto a disk drive, both spinning hard drive or flash drive such as a USB memory stick; it can be manually installed or installed by using an installer script. Installation by installer script or manual installation can be done with ttylinux itself or by using a different Linux system.
The ttylinux file system, excluding the Linux kernel, is 8 MB in size. Using the ttylinux installer script, a Linux kernel between 2.5 and 3.5 MB will also be installed. This makes a minimum workable size of about 12 MB for a hard drive partition on which to install ttylinux, although 32 MB of RAM are needed to use the automated ttylinux installer script.
ttylinux includes a package management script, named pacman, capable of installing, making, removing and querying ttylinux packages and their files. The package manager can list and install packages from an external repository via http. Pacman is useful for adapting ttylinux to specific needs.
What ttylinux Is Not
ttylinux is not a typical Linux distribution; it does not have a graphical user interface, software development tools, music player, document preparation nor printing tools, databases nor network services such as BIND, News Server nor Mail Transfer Agents.
What ttylinux Can Do
ttylinux is intended to be useful as the basis of an embedded system or a directed-purpose system: with its small size ttylinux boots quickly from flash drives and CR-ROM; it has been used as a system fix/repair tool, as a simulation host, and is a good basis for a rescue or installation CD-ROM.
ttylinux provides a working Linux environment with its boot image, and custom task-specific scripts can mount other parts of the file system to provide a larger system.
ttylinux is useful on computers which are considered obsolete, such as 486SX PC. It is for people who want to have a minimal Linux distribution to run when little space is available or needed. Some users may want to use the ttylinux file system but configure and build their own Linux kernel.
ttylinux can serve as a rough prototype of a larger system, since it uses the same C library, glibc, as full Linux systems, compiling programs on a different Linux computer and copying them to the ttylinux file system can result in working programs. However this is not a supported feature. Programs compiled outside the normal ttylinux build process may require libraries not present in ttylinux. Worse, they may be compiled on a computer with different Linux kernel capabilities and make system calls not present in ttylinux.
ttylinux is for people who have Linux experience; it is not for beginners, unless you want to learn how a Linux system works underneath the Graphical User Interfaces. You must be able to use the interactive shell command-line, and it helps to know your way around Linux system. Most of the programs are busybox programs; these are smaller versions of the common Unix utilities.
The software packages that are part of ttylinux are licensed under a number of different open source licenses, as listed below. The initialization and system service scripts developed by the ttylinux project are licensed under the GNU General Public License; a copy of this license is included in the file COPYING.
For more information on the licenses, please visit the opensource.org website.
This section has a general overview of the ttylinux download CD-ROM image and also describes the system hardware requirements for using ttylinux, from where to download ttylinux, what to download and how to use the downloaded images.
ttylinux has three basic parts: a boot loader, a Linux kernel, and a root file system. All three of these are in the CD-ROM image; the CD-ROM image can be burned onto a blank CD-ROM disc and then booted. When booted, the root file system from the CD-ROM is decompressed and becomes a read/write root file system in a RAM disk in memory. Note that changes to any of the files while running ttylinux are lost, as they are in a RAM disk. Booting the ttylinux CD-ROM is further described in section 2.3.
Installing ttylinux from the bootable CD-ROM onto a hard drive is described in section 3.4. Installation onto a hard drive makes a system different from the bootable CD-ROM; the installed ttylinux has a read/write root file system directly on a spinning hard disk or solid state disk, not in a RAM disk. The advantage of a hard drive ttylinux system over the RAM disk system is that file changes are not lost.
ttylinux can be put onto a flash drive, such as a USB drive, which can be made bootable. This copies the RAM disk boot method to the flash drive; when the flash drive is booted, the root file system from the flash drive is decompressed and becomes a read/write root file system in a RAM disk in memory. As with the system booted from CD-ROM, the changes to files are lost when the system shuts down. The process of putting ttylinux onto a flash drive is described in more detail in section 3.3.
The ttylinux root file system is a compressed image file on the CD-ROM; it can be copied and used with a different custom kernel, one that you make, and put onto other media with your boot loader of choice. This process is beyond the scope of this document, but the requirements for a ttylinux custom kernel are described in more detail in section 2.1.1.
ttylinux is available for several different CPUs and hardware architectures;
currently, ttylinux operation on a PC compatible i486 architecture is described
in this User Guide, with much applicability to the i686 and x86_64 PC
platforms. These systems are:
ttylinux 14.0 - i486, specifically the i486 instruction set
ttylinux 14.0 - i686, Pentium Pro instruction set
ttylinux 14.0 - x86_64, AMD64/Intel 64 instruction set
CPUs and Computers
pc_i486 ttylinux requires an i486SX or newer processor in a PC compatible computer. It will not work with the i386 CPU; the glibc version in ttylinux uses CPU instructions the i386 CPU does not have. Any x86 compatible CPU supporting i486, and upward compatible, that is in a PC compatible computer should work.
pc_i686 ttylinux requires Pentium Pro or newer processor in a PC compatible computer. Any x86 compatible CPU supporting Pentium Pro, and upward compatible, that is in a PC compatible computer should work.
pc_x86_64 ttylinux supports generic 64-bit AMD64/Intel 64 processor in a PC compatible computer.
ttylinux uses an 8 MB RAM disk when booted from CD-ROM. The kernel on the CD-ROM is fairly large; it supports a broad range of hardware, so at least 28 MB of memory are required for full operation with pc_i486 ttylinux and at least 128 MB of memory are required for full operation with pc_i686 or pc_x86_64 ttylinux.
Using a custom kernel supporting only hardware for a particular computer, an i486 ttylinux system may require as little as 16 MB of memory to run. If the file system is installed onto a read/write disk drive, spinning or flash, and a custom kernel is used, an i486 ttylinux will run within 8 MB of RAM.
The ttylinux root file system is an 8 MB ext2 file system; the file system image is compressed and resides in the CD-ROM image. After burning the CD-ROM image to a blank CD-ROM disc, or mounting the CD-ROM image via loop device, you can find the compressed root file system; it is boot/filesys.gz. This root file system can be used with a custom kernel that you make.
pc_i486, pc_i686, and pc_x86_64 ttylinux are built with Linux 126.96.36.199 header files. Linux kernels are not backwards compatible; software using the capabilities of a given kernel version cannot be expected to work with any previous kernel version. Using a kernel older than the kernel with which ttylinux was built cannot be supported in any way. With that described, with the small number of packages in the ttylinux system, ttylinux works to some extent with any Linux kernel from 2.6.0 upwards.
Your custom kernel needs to support all the hardware you want to use, plus some additional requirements for ttylinux itself.
A kernel used for running ttylinux needs to have ramdisk support, initial ramdisk support, and a default ramdisk size of at least 8192. Note the kernel configuration has a default ramdisk size of 4096, which is not big enough.
If you want to use the basic firewall script of ttylinux, your kernel also needs iptables support with the netlink interface.
A ttylinux kernel needs to support ext2 file systems.
If you want to add a telnet server to ttylinux, your kernel will need to have Unix98 pseudo terminal support and support for the devpts file system.
The main ttylinux web site is accessed at http://ttylinux.org/, and http://www.ttylinux.net/ should have the same content.
The ttylinux web site has a Download page that has several files available for downloading.
Bootable CD-ROM Images
There should be several ttylinux bootable CD-ROM ISO images available, at least one each for i486 PC, i686 PC, and x86_64 PC. The CD-ROM ISO images are each an El Torito bootable CD-ROM ISO 9660 file system with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions. El Torito enables CD-ROM to be bootable on PC. The Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions add longer file names to the ISO 9660 file system capabilities.
The ttylinux web site should have links to the sources of the source code packages used to build ttylinux. ttylinux source ISO distributions, which have the source code packages comprising the ttylinux variants, are probably available at the ttylinux web site. If you cannot find the source code package for a ttylinux component, then email [email protected], and any needed arrangements will be made to supply the source code package.
Build System Distribution
The complete ttylinux build system distribution is available; it has a file How_To_Build_ttylinux.txt that describes the build process. When available at the ttylinux web site, the Developer Guide more fully describes building ttylinux.
Binary Run-time Packages
The binary packages that make up the entire ttylinux run-time system are available within the distribution ISO, or distribution TAR-file. These packages are available in the case any were removed from a ttylinux system and there is a desire or need to reinstall the removed packages. Packages are installed with pacman, the ttylinux package manager. Pacman is described in more detail in section 4.10 of this document.
The PC variants of ttylinux are intended to boot on an appropriate 32-bit x86 or 64-bit x86_64 PC that can boot from a CD-ROM drive.
Download the CD-ROM ISO image file and burn it onto a blank CD-ROM disc as an ISO image. Then put the disc into the CD-ROM drive of an appropriate PC and boot the PC; ttylinux should start up automatically.
A computer's BIOS setup may not be set up to allow booting from CD-ROM; in that case you need to go into the BIOS setup screen(s) and make changes that allow the computer to boot from CD-ROM. If the computer has an old BIOS that is not able to boot from a CD-ROM device, there is software called Smart Boot Manager that may help. It can currently be found at: http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/about.html
Once ttylinux has booted, and you see the login prompt, login as user name "root", the administrator account, with password "password". There also is a non-administrator account "user", with password "password".
The CD-ROM can be used as a rescue system or simply for trying ttylinux. For installing or transferring ttylinux from the CD-ROM, or from the downloaded CD-ROM image file, to another disk device see section 3. See section 4 of this user guide for pointers about what you can do with a ttylinux system.
ttylinux can be put onto a USB drive, also known as flash drive, USB memory stick, pen drive, travel drive, etc. This also applies to flash drives that are not on USB. For these you probably want to boot a RAM disk system from your USB or flash drive. See section 3.3, but you should also read the preceeding parts of section 3.
This section of the user guide describes the two types of ttylinux bootable installations and the methods for creating them from either the downloaded CD-ROM image file or a CD-ROM with the image burned onto it.
The ttylinux CD-ROM image is the source used for installation; it is a CD-ROM ISO 9660 file system. The pc_i486 CD-ROM has the following directory structure:
|-- AUTHORS |-- COPYING |-- LABEL |-- boot | |-- System.map | |-- filesys.gz | |-- grub | | `-- loopback.cfg | |-- isolinux | | |-- boot.msg | | |-- help_f2.msg | | |-- help_f3.msg | | |-- help_f4.msg | | |-- isolinux.bin | | `-- isolinux.cfg | |-- vmlinux | `-- vmlinuz |-- config | |-- kernel-188.8.131.52.cfg | |-- syslinux | `-- ttylinux-setup |-- doc | |-- ChangeLog-pc_i486 | |-- Flash_Disk_Howto.txt | |-- User_Guide.html | |-- User_Guide.pdf | `-- User_Guide.tex |-- packages | |-- bash-4.2-i486.tbz | |-- busybox-1.19.3-i486.tbz | |-- dropbear-0.53.1-i486.tbz | |-- e2fsprogs-1.42.1-i486.tbz | |-- glibc-2.9-i486.tbz | |-- gpm-1.20.6-i486.tbz | |-- iptables-184.108.40.206-i486.tbz | |-- lilo-23.2-i486.tbz | |-- ncurses-5.7-i486.tbz | |-- ppp-2.4.5-i486.tbz | |-- retawq-0.2.6c-i486.tbz | |-- ttylinux-basefs-1.0-i486.tbz | |-- ttylinux-devfs-1.0-i486.tbz | `-- ttylinux-utils-1.3-i486.tbz `-- qemu-i486.sh
Several files are critical for installation, note their location in the CD-ROM
CD-ROM/boot/filesys.gz - ttylinux gzipped ext2 file system image
CD-ROM/boot/vmlinuz - gzipped ttylinux Linux kernel
CD-ROM/config/ttylinux-setup - user-maintained RAM disk startup
The ttylinux installation script automates the process of installing ttylinux; the scripts also copy the other documentation and information files to the new installed system.
For manual installation you can mount the CD-ROM or mount the CD-ROM image file via loop device for access to the critical files. The manual processes of installing ttylinux describes this in more detail.
There are two basic types of ttylinux installation, resulting in two type of booted systems: a RAM disk or persistent storage.
A Ram Disk installation results in a system that puts the root file system into RAM when it boots, which is what the bootable CD-ROM does. If you want to put ttylinux onto a flash drive, pen drive, USB memory stick, travel drive, etc. then you very probably want this sort of installation. This is typical for flash drives, but not for spinning hard disks, for at least two reasons: 1) flash drives have been much slower than hard drives, so maintaining a live file system on a flash drive has been intolerably slow, and 2) these are removable drive which have been difficult to consistently mount as they move between interfaces and computers. With this booting scheme, the boot loader takes the root file system from the drive and gives it to the kernel which decompresses it and mounts it as a read/write root file system in a RAM disk in memory. Changes to files in the root file system are lost when the system shuts down; persistent changes must be stored elsewhere. However, ttylinux has specific support for persistent changes to its boot-time startup with a RAM disk system, this is described section 3.3.5. The program /sbin/ttylinux-flash can be used to copy ttylinux from the CD-ROM to another drive and configure it to boot in this manner. The processes of putting ttylinux onto a drive for booting a RAM disk system and configuring its boot-time startup support is described in more detail in the next section 3.3.
A Persistent Storage installation results in a system that boots with the read/write root file system maintained directly on the spinning hard disk or solid state drive. If you have a spinning hard disk or one of the new fast solid state drives, and it is not removable, then you probably want this sort of installation. If you want to install onto removable media and will move the media to different slots or computers, then you do not want this kind of installation. The program /sbin/ttylinux-installer can be used to install ttylinux from the CD-ROM onto a spinning hard disk or solid state drive and configure it to boot in this manner. The processes of installing ttylinux onto a hard drive and booting a persistent storage root file system is described in more detail in section 3.4.
The section describes transferring a few files from the CD-ROM image to a drive, probably a flash drive, and configuring it to boot ttylinux into a RAM disk, as does the CD-ROM.
A Linux system, either ttylinux or some other Linux system, can be used to make a ttylinux bootable flash drive.
The ttylinux script /sbin/ttylinux-flash makes a bootable ttylinux on a flash drive, and it does this in such a way that the new flash drive ttylinux copy can then be used in place of a CD-ROM as the source for another ttylinux transfer, but only if you again use the ttylinux script.
The ttylinux CD-ROM is used as the source, or the ttylinux CD-ROM image file mounted with a loop device can be used. Even the kernel and file system image files removed from the ttylinux CD-ROM image can be used as the source if they are in a directory structure as found in the CD-ROM image.
Using the ttylinux CD-ROM Disc
For the following examples of mounting the CD-ROM disc, /mnt/cdrom references the mount point in your file system to which the CD-ROM disc mounts. If you are not using ttylinux then your actual mount point may be different; substitute accordingly. Have the ttylinux boot CD-ROM disc in the CD-ROM drive and mount it. You need to know which device in /dev to use; if you do not know which device to use then section 3.4.1 might help. The CD-ROM should be mounted as type iso9660 e.g., mounted by the following command.
mount -t iso9660 /dev/<partition> /mnt/cdrom
Using a ttylinux CD-ROM ISO Image File
If you have a downloaded ttylinux CD-ROM image file, ttylinux-i486-14.0.iso.gz, ttylinux-i686-14.0.iso.gz or ttylinux-x86_64-14.0.iso.gz, then you can mount it via loopback device with the following commands; substitue i686 or x86_64 for i486 where appropriate.
mkdir -p mnt/cdrom gunzip ttylinux-i486-14.0.iso.gz mount -t iso9660 -o loop ttylinux-i486-14.0.iso mnt/cdrom
Critical ttylinux CD-ROM Files
Of the following three files, you must have access to the first two; the third one is very usefull, but not critical. In the following, "CD-ROM/" is meant to be wherever you mounted the CD-ROM disc or CD-ROM image file.
CD-ROM/boot/filesys.gz - ttylinux gzipped ext2 file system image
CD-ROM/boot/vmlinuz - gzipped ttylinux Linux kernel
CD-ROM/config/ttylinux-setup - user-maintained RAM disk startup
The target directory is the directory where ttylinux will be put; it must be the top-level, root directory on the disk partition being used. You need to know, or find out, the device name for the disk partition onto which you want to transfer ttylinux. If you are not sure what a disk partition is you can read a little more description of ttylinux target partitions in section 3.4.2, but do not continue until you understand enough about disk devices and partitions to understand the rest of this section.
Due to the combined space requirements of the 8 MB ttylinux file system and the 2.5 to 3.5 MB ttylinux Linux kernel, and considering some margin, the minimum partition size onto which you can install ttylinux and have it work is at least 12 MB. These sizes are much larger for the i686 and x86_64 ttylinux variants.
This rest of this section describes manually mounting a disk partition that has the directory to transfer ttylinux onto. If your target directory is already mounted, or automatically mounts, and you will use the ttylinux script to transfer ttylinux, then delete everything in the target directory or the script will not transfer ttylinux onto it.
In order to manually mount a disk you need to know the disk device node e.g. /dev/sdc and its mountable partition you want to use e.g. /dev/sdc1. Read the previous sentence again, note the distinction between the disk and partition devices.
A USB drive partition probably should be mounted with the following command. For the following example of mounting the drive, /mnt/flash references the mount point in your file system to which the drive mounts. If you are not using ttylinux then your actual mount point may be different; substitute accordingly. If you are mounting a Linux file system then change to the appropriate file system type in the following command.
mount -t vfat /dev/<partition> /mnt/flash
The device partition in the above example is the device node of the mountable partition on the disk that you want to use e.g. sdc1, in which case it represents /dev/sdc1.
If you will use the ttylinux script to transfer ttylinux, then delete everything in the target directory or the script will not transfer ttylinux onto it.
The ttylinux shell script, /sbin/ttylinux-flash automates the process of copying the ttylinux system from the source directory into the target directory and making the target drive bootable. This transfer typically is from CD-ROM disc to flash drive; the CD-ROM disc should be mounted with option -t iso9660 to specify the correct file system type, and USB drives are usually FAT32 and those should be mounted with option -t vfat to specify the correct file system type.
The script is invoked with a command line option telling it which boot loader to use, lilo or syslinux. The following is the help output from the ttylinux-flash script, it describes how to invoke the script.
ttylinux-flash (C) 2008-2010 Douglas Jerome <[email protected]> Usage: ttylinux-flash --lilo <source path> <flash path> <flash dev> ttylinux-flash --syslinux <source path> <flash path> <flash dev> Parameters: -l | --lilo ....... Use lilo method to make bootable flash disk. -s | --syslinux ... Use syslinux method to make bootable flash disk. <source path> is the mounted ttylinux CD-ROM directory, or any equivalent USB or hard drive directory of the ttylinux CD-ROM layout and contents. <flash path> is a rooted path to the flash disk root file system to be loaded from the source path. For the syslinux method this must be a Windows FAT file system, but for the lilo method this can be either an EXT2 or FAT file system. <flash dev> is the /dev/* that is the whole disk block device node, such as /dev/sdc, NOT a partition block device node like /dev/sdc1.
The transfer script checks if the source CR-ROM device contains a ttylinux CD-ROM; if the CD-ROM is found then a summary of what is to be transfered onto which device is printed and you are given a choice of continuing or aborting. Enter "yes" to continue the transfer.
The transfer script copies the ttylinux files onto drive and then installs the bootloader.
After the installer is finished you can remove the CD-ROM disc from your computer and reboot.
The manual process is described in appendix B of this document. It also is a text file, Flash_Disk_Howto.txt, in the doc/ directory on the ttylinux CD-ROM disc.
This transfered ttylinux system is a RAM disk system. Its file system is a gzipped image on the boot drive; its directories and files are very inaccessible. When the system is running, changes made to files are not retained for the next boot. Customizing or configuring this system to your needs takes some specific support.
A ttylinux system properly transfered, such as by using the /sbin/ttylinux-flash script, has a special boot-time startup feature: when ttylinux boots it attempts to mount the USB/flash drive that is boots from and run a script on that drive. Since the script is in a boot drive directory, and not burried away in a compressed file system, it can be changed and maintained by you. You can change this script to perform ttylinux configuration for ttylinux to do when it boots.
The feature of mounting the booted drive and running a startup script on that drive provides the user with a persistent boot-time startup configuration that is retained from one boot to the next. This user-maintainable startup script on the boot drive is in the config/ttylinux directory; a default version of this script is put onto the boot drive when the /sbin/ttylinux-flash script is run. This startup script is a very convenient place to configure your particular network interface upon ttylinux startup.
NOTE Your computer needs at least 32 MB of RAM to run the ttylinux-installer script.
The section describes installing ttylinux from the CD-ROM image to a drive partition, probably on a spinning hard disk, and configuring it to boot ttylinux with the root file system residing on the boot drive, not in RAM.
A Linux system, either ttylinux or some other Linux system, can be used to install ttylinux.
WARNING: Running the installer can easily destroy all operating systems, and anything else, currently present on the target machine. Proceed with caution and backup all important data before installing ttylinux. Really.
To install ttylinux onto disk from the bootable CD-ROM, you first need to burn the ttylinux CD-ROM ISO image onto a blank CD-ROM disc and, if using ttylinux to perform the installation, boot into it as described in the previous section 2.3.
Once logged into ttylinux as root, you can start the installation. You need to know three things to run the installer: 1) what your CD-ROM device is, 2) which drive partition you want to install ttylinux, and 3) where you want to put the boot loader.
If you don't know the answers to those three questions after reading the following instructions, the safe bet would be not to proceed with installation; the ttylinux installer is not yet automated or user-friendly enough for you.
The correct CD-ROM device name depends on whether the drive is an IDE or SATA device. If your system uses IDE, the following device names are possible:
|/dev/hda||Master Device on First IDE Controller|
|/dev/hdb||Slave Device on First IDE Controller|
|/dev/hdc||Master Device on Second IDE Controller|
|/dev/hdd||Slave Device on Second IDE Controller|
Among the above, /dev/hda is not likely to be your CD-ROM device unless you are using a modern laptop. A more likely possibility is /dev/hdc. /dev/hda normally is the device name of your hard disk, but a modern computer will use SATA for the hard drive and many of those have IDE CD-ROM drive.
If your system uses SATA (Serial ATA), use this table:
|/dev/scd0||First SATA CD-ROM Device|
|/dev/scd1||Second SATA CD-ROM Device|
|/dev/scd2||Third SATA CD-ROM Device|
|/dev/scd3||Fourth SATA CD-ROM Device|
Usually the SATA CD-ROM device will be /dev/scd0.
You need to know, or find out, the device name for the disk partition on which you want to install ttylinux. The device names for disk partitions are formed by appending a number to the device name of the corresponding disk. For example, if your disk device is /dev/hda, the device /dev/hda3 is the third partition on that disk. Numbers 1-4 are the primary partitions, extended partitions start at 5.
ATTENTION: If you plan on installing onto a USB drive, or some other frequently moved disk device, then do not install ttylinux with the instructions here; use the instructions in section 3.3. The disk and partition devices used by this installation process would likely be different between different computers, so this installation may not correctly boot when booted on a computer other than the computer on which the installation is performed.
Due to the combined space requirements of the 8 MB ttylinux file system and the 3 MB ttylinux kernel, and considering some margin, the minimum partition size onto which you can install ttylinux and have it work is about 12 MB.
IDE disks use the same device names as given for IDE CD-ROM devices above. For SATA, the names are as follows:
|/dev/sda||First SATA Disk Device|
|/dev/sdb||Second SATA Disk Device|
|/dev/sdc||Third SATA Disk Device|
|/dev/sdd||Fourth SATA Disk Device|
Note that if you want to create a dual-boot setup with Windows and ttylinux on the same disk, a topic not covered here, you can't use the first partition /dev/hda1 or /dev/sda1 as your ttylinux target partition, because that is where Windows needs to be installed to work.
Here are some examples of possible device names for your target partition:
|/dev/hda1||First Primary Partition on Primary IDE Master|
|/dev/hdb5||First Extended Partition on Primary IDE Slave|
|/dev/sda2||Second Primary Partition on First SATA Disk|
|/dev/sdc6||Second Extended Partition on Third SATA Disk|
Note that depending on the BIOS, booting might be possible only from the first two disks installed in the system.
Also, you can look at the directory listing of /sys/block to see which block devices the kernel has detected, as disk drives are block devices.
Drive Partitioning, if Needed
What to do if your target disk is not partitioned yet? Linux systems, including ttylinux, have the fdisk program that can be used to partition disks. For example, to partition a disk connected as master to the first IDE controller, use:
The user interface of fdisk is somewhat primitive, so be careful. If you haven't used it before, a good idea would be to search the Internet for instructions. The basic commands you may need are "d" to delete a partition, "n" to create a new partition, "p" to print the current partition table, and "w" to write the edited partition table to disk. You can also use "q" to exit fdisk without saving your changes.
The LILO boot loader is installed in one of two places: either the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the disk device or the boot sector of the partition device in which ttylinux is being installed.
With LILO installed in the MBR of the first disk, it will completely take over the entire boot process of the computer. If there are other operating systems installed on the computer they need to be specified in the LILO configuration file, /etc/lilo.conf, in order to boot them.
With LILO installed in the boot sector of the target partition or in the MBR of a disk other than the first one in your computer, the bootloader installed in the MBR of the first disk needs to be configured to boot the ttylinux target partition.
Once you have decided on target device and boot loader location, you can run the installer. The script is called ttylinux-installer. The following is the help output from the ttylinux-installer script, it describes how to invoke the script. The square brackets indicate an optional parameter, the partition device is used for the installation target device.
ttylinux-installer (C) 2008-2011 Douglas Jerome <[email protected]> Usage: $(basename $0) [ <options> ] <source device> <target device> Usage: $(basename $0) --config=<file> <source device> Options: --help ......... Show this help. -m | --mbr ..... Put lilo boot loader onto the Master Boot Record of the disk device containing the <target device> disk partition. --nolilo ....... Do not put the lilo boot loader onto the disk drive. --vcs=<name> ... Use <name> for the Virtual Context Script. <source device> is the CD-ROM device that has the ttylinux CD-ROM. <target device> is the disk partition device onto which ttylinux is installed; it needs to be a disk partition device, not the whole disk device. An ext2 file system is created on this device. Create an ext2 file system on the disk partition device <target device>, install ttylinux from the CD-ROM <source device> into the new file system on <target device>, and then maybe put a lilo boot loader onto the target disk. The lilo boot loader is put onto the disk partition <target device> unless the -m or --mbr option is present, in which case the it is put onto the Master Boot Record of the disk device. No lilo boot loader is put onto the disk if the --nolilo option is preset or if the running architecture does not support lilo e.g., ttylinux PowerPC.
For example, to install from the CD-ROM device /dev/hdc into partition device /dev/hda2 and placing LILO on the MBR, /dev/hda disk device, you would use:
ttylinux-installer -m /dev/hdc /dev/hda2
Another example, installing from the second SATA CD-ROM device /dev/scd1 into the third partition device of the second SATA disk and placing LILO on the boot sector of the target partition:
ttylinux-installer /dev/scd1 /dev/sdb3
The installer checks if the source CR-ROM device contains a ttylinux CD-ROM disc; if the CD-ROM disc is found then a summary of what is to be installed on which device is printed and you are given a choice of continuing or aborting. Enter "yes" to continue the installation.
The installer creates an ext2 file system on the target partition then copies the ttylinux distribution files onto the new file system, and then installs the LILO bootloader.
After the installer is finished you can remove the CD-ROM disc from your computer and reboot.
Using the Installation Configuration File
When you boot ttylinux from the CD-ROM image and log in as root, you will find a file named "install.conf" in the /root directory; this file is an example of an installation configuration file that can be used to direct the automated installtion activites of the ttylinux installer script. The example "install.conf" file is well documented; read it to learn how to use it.
You must first manually partition the hard drive, and then make sure the installation configuration file's fstab section matches the actual disk partitions.
Example, to install from the CD-ROM device /dev/hdc into partition device /dev/hda2, using the installation configuration file:
ttylinux-installer --config=install.conf /dev/hda2
Using a Virtual Context Script
The ttylinux installer script supports a Virtual Context Script option in which the installed system is locked-down and boots with a startup sequence that mounts an iso9660 (CD-ROM) file system and runs a contextualization script from that file system. This is for running the installed ttylinux system in a virtual environment that may be prone to unauthorized log-in attempts.
The -vcs=<name> option names the Virtual Context Script to be invoked at boot startup each time the installed system boots. The named Virtual Context Script is inkvoked from an iso9660 file system that is mounted at boot startup; the block device for this file system must be available as /dev/hda, /dev/hdc, /dev/sr0, or /dev/cdrom.
When the -vcs=<name> option is used, the installed system is locked down
1. the user account is removed
2. the getty logins are all disabled
3. dropbear (sshd) is configured to run with passwords disabled
4. the firewall is enabled allowing only the SSH port
5. the Virtual Context Script is configured to be invoked at startup
6. the startup is configured to create a random root password
It is expected that the Virtual Context Script, which is invoked each time the installed system boots, puts an ssh-compliant public key into the /root/.ssh/authorized_keys file. This allows root login via SSH by someone with the corresponding SSH-compliant private key. See section 4.5 for some more information on dropbear and public/private key usage.
This description uses LILO for boot loading; other boot loaders such as grub and maybe loadlin and syslinux will also work.
There are two files to take from the ttylinux CD-ROM image, either by burning the image to a blank CD-ROM disc and mounting it, or mounting the CR-ROM image via loop device. In the following commands, the ttylinux version 14.0 CD-ROM image file is named ttylinux-i486-14.0.iso.gz; decompress it and mount it via loop device with the following commands, substituting your actual CPU x86_64 or i686, if needed.
mkdir -p mnt/ttylinux gunzip ttylinux-i486-14.0.iso.gz mount -t iso9660 -o loop ttylinux-i486-14.0.iso mnt/ttylinux
The two files needed from the CD-ROM are the ttylinux root file system, boot/filesys.gz, and the Linux kernel, boot/vmlinuz. You can, of course, use a different Linux kernel, following the ttylinux custom kernel requirements described in section 2.1.1.
There are two ways to install ttylinux for booting, one is to have ttylinux boot with the root file system in RAM disk, the other is to have ttylinux boot with the root file system directly on the hard drive.
Install a ttylinux to Boot Using RAM Disk
Copy the ttylinux file system filesys.gz image and the desired Linux kernel into your boot files directory; probably, this directory is /boot. After copying the two files, unmount the loop device with the following command.
umount -d mnt/ttylinux
These two files, the kernel and the file system image, can have names other than the file names from the ttylinux CD-ROM. For this example the file names are changed from the names on the CD-ROM: the compressed ttylinux file system image file is called ttylinux-filesys.gz, the Linux kernel is called ttylinux-vmlinuz and the boot dirctory is /boot. Add the following section to /etc/lilo.conf:
image = /boot/ttylinux-vmlinuz label = ttylinux initrd = /boot/ttylinux-filesys.gz root = /dev/ram0 read-only
Run the LILO boot loader installer by typing /sbin/lilo. The next boot will have the option of selecting ttylinux at the LILO boot prompt.
Install a ttylinux to Boot with File System on a Hard Drive
A hard drive partition, or a flash drive partition, of at least 8 MB is needed to install ttylinux. For this example ttylinux is being installed on drive partition device /dev/hda8 and the kernel and file system files are available via the loop device instructions above. A loop device also is used to mount the ttylinux file system image file.
cp mnt/ttylinux/boot/filesys.gz filesys.gz gunzip filesys.gz mkdir -p mnt/filesys mkdir -p mnt/newroot mount -t ext2 -o loop ./filesys mnt/filesys mount -t ext2 /dev/hda8 mnt/newroot cp -a mnt/filesys/* mnt/newroot cp mnt/ttylinux/boot/vmlinuz mnt/newroot/boot/ttylinux-vmlinuz umount -d mnt/ttylinux umount -d mnt/filesys
The new ttylinux root file system is still mounted; it needs to be customized before booting. Configuration is described in the following section 3.4.6; it includes a description of a LILO configuration for booting the new ttylinux installation. After configuration unmount mnt/newroot.
This section covers the minimum configuration needed to run ttylinux. More system configuration can be done; see the system guide, section 4, below for information.
The configuration files and options described in this section are present in a ttylinux system installed from the bootable CD-ROM. Following the installation instructions above, the file system is in mnt/newroot, that is the example starting point for the following configuration descriptions.
/etc/fstab needs to have the correct device for the root directory, the manually installed ttylinux /etc/fstab still specifies a RAM disk device for the root directory. Change the RAM disk device, /dev/ram0, to be the disk partition device in which the ttylinux root file system was installed. In the above example /dev/hda8 was used, so for that example the root directory in /etc/fstab would be specified as:
/dev/hda8 / ext2 defaults 0 0
The boot loader needs to specify the ttylinux kernel and root file system device. Following the installation instructions above, the LILO configuration file /etc/lilo.conf would include the following. Note the initrd specifier is removed and the root specifier is changed to /dev/hda8.
image = /boot/ttylinux-vmlinuz label = ttylinux root = /dev/hda8 read-only
To use the current keyboard map from the Linux computer being used to install ttylinux, use the following commands.
rm mnt/newroot/etc/i18n/kmap mnt/newroot/bin/dumpkmap >mnt/newroot/etc/i18n/kmap
The best way to set the ttylinux timezone is to use the boot parameters as described in section 4.1. This needs to be done only one time for an installed ttylinux system as this boot option becomes persistent.
Dial-up Network Information
ttylinux does not directly support dial-up networking with PPP and has no support at all for ISDN. Previous versions of ttylinux did have PPP and ISDN support; their package structure is being re-organized and they may return in some later version of ttylinux.
ttylinux does have the PPP binaries: /usr/sbin/pppd and /usr/sbin/chat, but currently it is up to you to configure and use them.
Unmount and Reboot
Now unmount the newly installed partition.
And reboot to run the new ttylinux system.
This section gives a short overview of the ttylinux system, its configuration and some of the installed programs.
Boot parameters are typed as a command line in the boot loader, before the Linux kernel is loaded. You will see these options when you boot the ttylinux CD-ROM. The vga=<mode> and modules=<module>[,<module>] boot parameters are not used by i486 ttylinux.
console=<ttyS*> ........... Use serial dev <ttyS*> for console login. The kernel will use it for console output and ttylinux will also put a getty login on it. For <ttyS*> use one of ttyS0, ttyS1, ttyS2 or ttyS3. vga=<mode> ................ Use VESA frame buffer with <mode>. Try vga=ask to get a list of modes support by the kernel. vga=0x301 640x480 8-bit | vga=0x161 1152x864 8-bit vga=0x311 640x480 16-bit | vga=0x163 1152x864 16-bit vga=0x303 800x600 8-bit | vga=0x307 1280x1024 8-bit vga=0x313 800x600 16-bit | vga=0x31A 1280x1024 16-bit vga=0x305 1024x768 8-bit | vga=0x31C 1600x1200 8-bit vga=0x317 1024x768 16-bit | vga=0x31E 1600x1200 16-bit quiet ..................... Don't print a bunch of stuff while booting, but do show anomalies and errors. enet ...................... Startup networking for Ethernet interfaces found by the kernel. DHCP is used. Any started interface will be eth0, eth1, eth2 or eth3. nofsck .................... Do not run fsck on any file systems. nosshd .................... Do not start sshd or make ssh keys; recommended for any CPU slower than 1 Ghz. A script that makes the ssh keys will be left in the /root directory. modules=<module>[,<module>] ... Load specific kernel module(s) named <module>. Use this to load your sound card module, or secure digital module (sdhci_pci if on the PCI bus), etc. hwclock=(local|utc) ....... The hardware (CMOS) clock keeps local or UCT time. tz=<timezone> ............. Set timezone to <timezone> by setting the TZ environment variable. Example: tz=GMT-8 See the following URL for a complete description of TZ. http://www.gnu.org/s/libc/manual/html_node/TZ-Variable.html#TZ-Variable host=<name.domain.tld> .... Set the hostname to <name.domain.tld>, which by this example is a Fully Qualified Domain Name. You can use a simple <name>. login=<tty*,tty*,...> ..... Allow login on devices e.g., ttyS1, etc. Embedded system might use this to put a getty login(s) on a serial port(s). nologin=<tty*,tty*,...> ... Disallow login on devices e.g., tty1, tty2, etc. Embedded system might use this to prevent a getty login(s) on a virtual console(s).
If you've installed ttylinux and are using lilo, or some other boot loader, ttylinux will still use these boot options even if the boot loader does not show them.
Upon boot-up, ttylinux provides 6 text consoles for login. There are two initial accounts: root, the administrator account, with password password; user, a user account, with password password
The syslogd and klog daemons are running and logging kernel and system messages to the file /var/log/messages.
The available text editor is vi; invoke it by typing vi /path/to/filename. This version of vi is a minimal version provided by busybox. Documentation and help for using vi is available in many places on the web.
For manipulation of users, groups and passwords, the tools adduser, addgroup, deluser, delgroup and passwd are present.
If you have not changed the keyboard settings as outlined in the configuration section, section 3.4.6 above, ttylinux will use its default keyboard settings. The default keyboard mapping is for a US keyboard.
The inetd super-server and the dropbear SSH server are running by default. An FTP or TFTP server will be forked by inetd when receiving either a connect from an FTP or TFTP client, respectively.
ttylinux has no telnet server or client; the dropbear SSH client is used to remotely log in to other hosts.
ttylinux includes a basic packet filtering firewall which is enabled by default. Section 4.7 below describes the configuring the ttylinux firewall.
On system bootup, the init process runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script to setup the system, such as setting the clock, system font, keyboard map and checking the file systems. rc.sysinit also runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.local script and then runs all the programs in the /etc/rc.d/rc.startup directory, all with the command line parameter start.
For ttylinux systems installed by the /sbin/ttylinux-flash script, the system startup script /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit attempts to find and mount the drive that is booted from and then run a script on that drive. Remember: this ttylinux system is a RAM disk system, changes made to files are not retained for the next boot because the file system is in RAM. This feature of mounting the booted drive and running a startup script provides the user with a persistent boot-time startup configuration that is retained from one boot to the next. This user-maintainable startup script on the boot drive is in the config/ttylinux directory; a default version of this script is put onto the drive when the /sbin/ttylinux-flash script is run. This script is a very convenient place to configure your particular network interface for ttylinux startup.
On system shutdown, the script /etc/rc.d/rc.sysdone runs. This script runs all the programs in the /etc/rc.d/rc.shutdown directory and then runs the /etc/rc.d/rc.local script, all with the command line parameter stop.
All the programs in /etc/rc.d/rc.startup and /etc/rc.d/rc.shutdown are symbolic links that reference actual shell scripts or binary programs; they are run in the ASCII order of their symbolic link file names. These symbolic links are named with leading numbers to help control their ordering e.g., 10.network is the symbolic link the the network startup program. The actual programs are in /etc/rc.d/init.d. Removing a symbolic link disables the program from starting up. These programs typically are shell scripts; they are commonly called initscripts.
Initscripts can be interactively invoked. The following command runs the network script /etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog with the command line option stop.
service syslog stop
All scripts use the command line options start, stop, reload, restart and status. They print a list of supported options if they are called with no option present.
The initscripts define the basic ttylinux bootup system configuration. The initscripts are configurable to an extent; thus the bootup configuration is configurable to an extent. The bootup system configuration is specified in ASCII text files in the /etc/sysconfig directory; this directory is intended to have only files that are read by the various initscripts. All files read by initscripts for configuration options should reside in /etc/sysconfig.
There are two files in /etc that describe your ttylinux build-time configurations. /etc/ttylinux-host is a text file that describes something about the host architecture that built your ttylinux distribution. /etc/ttylinux-target is a text file that describes some things about the architecture of your running ttylinux distribution.
The default shell used by ttylinux is GNU bash. The shell environment of aliases and variables is in /etc/profile; view this file after login to become familiar with the default shell environment.
Upon login, the PATH environmental variable has the following paths in the order listed.
/bin /usr/bin /sbin /usr/sbin
Put additional, or overriding, shell environment in scripts in the /etc/profile.d directory; do not change /etc/profile in order to avoid losing changes when updating ttylinux.
SSH, or secure shell, is a protocol for remote login with an advantage over telnet being that it can use public key authentication instead of passwords. Another advantage over the telnet protocol is that plain text is not transfered; the data sent between the host connections is encrypted.
dropbear is a small SSH v2 server and client package. Keys are generated and the server is started on system bootup by default, unless either the ttylinux dropbear starup script detects the CPU is slower than 1 GHz or the nosshd boot options was specified.
dropbear allows password and public key authentication. Public key authentication can use DSS and RSA keys and works with keys generated by the popular OpenSSH package. Having a public key from OpenSSH in the file .ssh/authorized_keys should allow secure login from the machine that has the corresponding private key. The permissions on the .ssh directory must not include group or other write permission, otherwise dropbear will refuse public key authentication.
The SSH client program is called dbclient. It is different from the server in that it cannot use keys in OpenSSH format. You can use the dropbearconvert program to convert an OpenSSH format key for use by dbclient or you can use dropbearkey to create a new key.
To convert an OpenSSH key stored in /.ssh/id_rsa, do:
dropbearconvert openssh dropbear \ ~/.ssh/id_rsa ~/.ssh/id_rsa.db
The new key will be stored in /.ssh/id_rsa.db. You can use the -i switch to dbclient to make it use your new key for authentication. The public key part of the old OpenSSH key can be used as-is for pasting into your /.ssh/authorized_keys file. Conversion is only needed for the private key.
To create a new RSA key to store in /.ssh/id_rsa.db, you can use the following command:
dropbearkey -t rsa -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa.db
The public key part of the new key will be printed to the screen. You can put it into the /.ssh/authorized_keys file on all machines where you want to be able to login using your new private key stored in /.ssh/id_rsa.db. You can create a DSS key instead of an RSA key by using -t dss instead of -t rsa. Should you lose the public key, you can always get it back by using the private key and the -y switch to dropbearkey:
dropbearkey -y -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa.db
If you want to use scp to copy files from another machine, the standard scp program from OpenSSH is included with dropbear and ttylinux.
ttylinux is ready to use Ethernet networking. DHCP will be used when starting up the Ethernet network, unless configured otherwise.
The Ethernet network interface configuration is specified in the text file:
This file has specification in the form of "ITEM=value". Edit this file to set the proper Ethernet interface IP addresses, change the Ethernet DHCP usage and to enable Ethernet networking. To enable Ethernet networking, the line ENABLE=no must be changed to ENABLE=yes. To disable DHCP, the line DHCP=yes must be changed to DHCP=no.
After configuring the Ethernet network interface, restart the networking subsystem with the following command.
service network restart
See the description of the /sbin/sysconfig script in section 4.11 for scripted help in setting up the Ethernet network interface configuration.
The Ethernet network interface, commonly referred to as eth0, can be started and stopped independently from the entire network subsystem with the following commands.
Startup eth0 with:
Shutdown eth0 with:
Help! I can use only IP addresses and not domain names.
If you use only static IP addresses and no DHCP, as specified in your /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth* files, then you probably have no /etc/resolv.conf file and no domain name resolution. In this case only IP addresses will work, such as "ping 220.127.116.11", and domain names will NOT work, such as "ping sun.com".
In this case, make your own /etc/resolv.conf file with these contents:
# OpenDNS Servers nameserver 18.104.22.168 nameserver 22.214.171.124
The following bash commands will do this for you:
rm -f /etc/resolv.conf >/etc/resolv.conf echo "# OpenDNS Servers" >>/etc/resolv.conf echo "nameserver 126.96.36.199" >>/etc/resolv.conf echo "nameserver 188.8.131.52" >>/etc/resolv.conf
The ttylinux firewall script sets the firewall to drop all new network input except for the ports explicitly specified in the firewall configuration file /etc/firewall.conf. The default firewall configuration specified in /etc/firewall.conf allows connections for FTP, TFTP, SSH, HTTP and the unprivileged UDP ports 1024 through 65535. The /etc/firewall.conf firewall configuration file has a very simple syntax that includes comments; the default file contains comments explaining its syntax and should be easy to understand and update.
Outgoing traffic is not firewalled at all and there is no configuration file for controlling outgoing traffic.
ttylinux can be an NFS client; NFS versions 2 and 3 are supported.
tylinux is prepared to automatically mount NFS entries you add to the /etc/fstab file.
Example manual commands to mount a NFS directory:
mount -t nfs -o nolock,rw,vers=2 <nfs server>:<exported dir> /mnt/nfs mount -t nfs -o nolock,rw,vers=3 <nfs server>:<exported dir> /mnt/nfs
ttylinux does not directly support dial-up networking with PPP and has no support at all for ISDN. Previous versions of ttylinux did have PPP and ISDN support; their package structure is being re-organized and they may return in a later version of ttylinux.
ttylinux does have the PPP binaries: /usr/sbin/pppd and /usr/sbin/chat, but currently it is up to you to configure and use them.
Package management is handled by pacman; it is invoked from the shell by typing its name, pacman. Use pacman to install and remove packages, and to query the local database of installed packages and files. When the network is up pacman can query, download and install packages from appropriate repositories. http://ttylinux.net/ currently is the only known ttylinux package repository. pacman also can make ttylinux packages, which may be handy as pacman is a bash script that can run on any Linux system.
ttylinux packages are tar archives compressed with bzip2. All the packages that come with the ttylinux distribution are available in the CD-ROM ISO image; this is for reinstalling any packages that may have been removed from a ttylinux system.
A list of hostnames to be used as ttylinux repositories may be kept in file /etc/ttylinux-repo; however this file does not need to exist. A package repository hostname can be given to any pacman command that accesses a ttylinux package repository, and ttylinux.net is allways the default if no package repository is given. If /etc/ttylinux-repo exists and has hostnames in it, ttylinux.net will be search first if no package repository is given on the pacman command line. You are not likely to use the /etc/ttylinux-repo file, nor the repo option in general, as there currently is no known ttylinux package repository.
pacman uses directory /usr/share/ttylinux as a database location. In this directory, ttylinux has one file per installed package; each file lists of all the file pathnames that belong that package. pacman makes and removes these package database files as needed. Also in the /usr/share/ttylinux directory will be similar repository cache files, one each for each ttylinux repository that pacman uses.
Some of the information from "pacman -help":
Usage: pacman [option ...] operation name [name ...] Options: --repo=<name> refer to a particular external repository --vers=<num> download for ttylinux version V<num> -v|--verbose verbose operation Operations: -h|--help display this option summary -d|--download download package files -e|--erase remove packages -i|--install install package files -m|--make make a package -qa|--query-all list all installed packages -qf|--query-file show package that has file -ql|--query-list list files from named package -qr|--query-repo list packages in external repositiory
The pacman command line above shows a specific order for options, operations and names; however, they actually can be arraged in any order.
Options can be repeated. If multiple conflicting options are given, the last one is used and the others are silently ignored. Each option applies only to some operations.
One operation must be supplied, and only one operation is allowed; all other uses of pacman display a help summary.
There are two kinds of package names used with pacman.
Package download, installation, make and query repo operations refer to actual binary package file names. These files are tar archives compressed with bzip2.
Package erase, query all, query file and query list operations refer to package names without the CPU architecture and .tbz suffix. This shorter name conceptually refers to the package as its files are installed in various directories; it is not a name of a literal package file. With the erase and query list operations the name is given on the pacman command line. With the query all and query file operations the name is listed as output from pacman.
pacman --download bash-3.2.48-x86_64.tbz lilo-22.8.src-x86_86.tbz pacman -d bash-3.2.48-x86_64.tbz --repo=ttylinux.org pacman -d bash-3.2.48-x86_64.tbz lilo-22.8.src-x86_86.tbz --vers=9.1 pacman --repo=palooka.net --download --vers=9.1 bash-3.2.48-x86_64.tbz
Use the -d or -download option to download a package from a repository via the network. The package name given to the command is the actual name of the package file. Multiple package names can be used to download multiple packages.
If no repository is given with the -repo= option, then all known repositories are searched. If the -repo= option is used, then only the given repository is search. The first package found matching the given package name is downloaded if there is a ttylinux version match, and then the download command stops; there is no further package search after a download attempt.
The version of the running ttylinux from which the download command is given must match the ttylinux version for a matching package name, otherwise the package is skipped and the download command continues searching the repository. Matching package names are displayed with their ttylinux version.
The -vers= option is used to override the running ttylinux version. For example, with this option you can download a package generated for ttylinux-9.1 while running ttylinux-9.3, which in many cases is a valid option; furthermore, this option must be used with pacman when running pacman from a non-ttylinux host. See section 4.10.2 for using pacman on a non-ttylinux host.
pacman --erase e2fsprogs-1.41.3 pacman -e e2fsprogs-1.41.3 bash-3.2.48
Use the -e or -erase option to remove an installed package's files and remove the package database file. The name is the name of the package as shown by the pacman query operations; this is not the name of the actual binary package file. Multiple package names can be used to remove multiple packages.
pacman will show the package name ask to continue to remove the given package, and it will always list all the removed files.
Use the -v or -verbose option to get verbose output during package removal.
pacman -i packages/bash-3.2.48-i486.tbz pacman -i bash-3.2.48-i486.tbz e2fsprogs-1.41.3-i486.tbz pacman --install --repo=ttylinux.net bash-3.2.48-i486.tbz pacman --repo=ttylinux.net --install --vers=9.1 bash-3.2.48-i486.tbz
Use the -i or -install option to install a package by giving the package file name. The package name can be a pathname; the actual package file must be as named in the pacman command unless the -repo= option is used. Multiple package names can be used to install multiple packages.
To install from a repository use the -repo= option to give the hostname of the ttylinux package repository. Matching package names are displayed with their ttylinux version, but if the package's ttylinux version does not match the running ttylinux then the package is not installed. For the package installation command, the -vers= option is used only with the -repo= option to override the running ttylinux version. For example, with this option you can install a package generated for ttylinux-9.1 while running ttylinux-9.3, which in many cases is a valid option.
pacman -m dropbear-0.52-i486.tbz pacman -make bash-3.2.48-i486.tbz e2fsprogs-1.41.3-i486.tbz
Use the -m or -make option to make ttylinux packages. This is a very difficult command to use. This command can be used on ttylinux but it is intended to be used on a non-ttylinux host to assemble ttylinux packages.
This command looks for a package database file. The database file name is the package name without the CPU architecture and .tbz suffix. For the dropbear example above, the database file name will be pkg-dropbear-0.52-FILES and that database file must be in the /usr/share/ttylinux directory.
Use the -v or -verbose option to get verbose output during package making.
See section 4.10.2 for using pacman on a non-ttylinux host to make ttylinux packages.
Query All List the Installed Packages
pacman -qa pacman --query-all
Use the -qa or -query-all option to see the list of all installed packages. This command shows the general package names, not the actual binary package file names. The package names shown by this command are the package names to use with the pacman erase command.
Query File Show the Package to which a File Belongs
pacman -qf /bin/login pacman --query-file /bin/ls /usr/bin/pacman
Use the -qf or -query-file option to find out which package a file belongs to. If the given file name does not actually exists on the system there will be no output from pacman. If the given file name is not in an installed package, then there will be no output from pacman.
Query List List the Files of an Installed Package
pacman -ql e2fsprogs-1.41.3 pacman --query-list e2fsprogs-1.41.3 bash-3.2.48
Use the -ql or -query-list option to list all files in the given package.
pacman -qr pacman --query-repo calc e2fsprogs-1.41.3-i486.tbz pacman -qr --repo=waldo.net
Use the -qr or -query-repo option to list packages in an external ttylinux package repository.
When the -repo= option is used, then only that repository is used; otherwise the ttylinux.net repository and all the repositories named in the /etc/ttylinux-repo file are used.
The package name is the actual name of the binary package file; this is the same package name to use when installing a package.
When no package name is given all packages in the appropriate repositories are listed. This can be bothersome when looking for a particular package, as the name of the package may scroll way off the screen as the repository is listed. Use the name of a package, or a partial name, with this command to limit the output to the package of interest. The package names given with this command can be shortened; the partial name must be from the beginning of the package name, with no gaps or wildcards. For example, a repository query for package name calc will find and list only the binary package files beginning with calc, listing the actual package names such as calc-184.108.40.206-i486.tbz and calc-220.127.116.11-x86_64.tbz. All appropriate repositories will be search in this manner.
Package Making Issues
The intended use of pacman on non-ttylinux hosts is for assembling ttylinux packages.
Package making seems an easy task as ttylinux packages are tar archives compressed with bzip2. A complicating factor in using pacman to make ttylinux packages is that the package making operation is an exact inverse of package installation, and there is a controlling list of files that comprises the files in the package. This controlling list of files is the database file associated with the package.
A package database file is created by the pacman package installation operation; it is read by the pacman package making operation.
All the package database files are in the /etc/share/ttylinux directory, which your non-ttylinux host probably does not have, nor should you want that directory on your non-ttylinux host.
Also, package installation puts files in directories all over your system, and for the inverse operation of package making you do not want to get files from directories all over your system. Putting files all around your system's directories in order to make a ttylinux package is a bothersome at best, and risky at worst.
Ideally, you would have a staging area, with the ttylinux files for which you want to create a package, under a single convenient private directory. And the package database file in a convenient private directory.
pacman can use a user-specified root directory from which it gets the files to make a package, and it can use a user-specified directory to look for the package database file. These user-specified directories, file root and package database directories, are used by all the pacman operations except package download and query repo operations. With this capabilities, pacman can install, query and make packages all with an alternate private root directory, and using an alternate private directory for managing the package database files.
The appropriate way to use pacman on a non-ttylinux host is to set the pacman file root and package database directories to your own alternate private directories. This is done by using environment variables. It may be convenient to use shell scripts in which the environment variables that control the user-specified directories are set, and sequences of pacman commands work within this environment.
There are three environment variables that customize pacman behaviour.
PACMAN_FILES_ROOT_DIR This sets the root directory that pacman uses to install files and also to look for files when making packages or removing packages. The default that pacman uses when this is not set is the system's root directory, /. PACMAN_PACKAGE_DB_DIR This sets the directory in which to refer to, make or remove the package database files. The default that pacman uses when this is not set is /usr/share/ttylinux. PACMAN_REPO_CACHE_DIR This sets the directory that pacman uses to make repository cache files for all repository operations. The default that pacman uses when this is not set is /usr/share/ttylinux.
An example usage of these environment variables for using pacman on a non-ttylinux host is:
#!/bin/bash # Script to merge the bash and busybox packages into one single package. # The pacman script must be in the $PATH. export PACMAN_FILES_ROOT_DIR=$(pwd)/p_root export PACMAN_PACKAGE_DB_DIR=$(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux export PACMAN_REPO_CACHE_DIR=$(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux # Remove everything created by this script so that this script is repeatable. # rm -rf p_root rm -rf new-stuff-i486.tbz # Make an alternate root directory. # mkdir -p p_root/usr/share/ttylinux pacman --repo=ttylinux.net --install --vers=9.1 bash-3.2.48-i486.tbz # # Now these two files are installed: # $(pwd)/p_root/bash # $(pwd)/p_root/sh -> bash # And there is a package database file: # $(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/pkg-bash-3.2.48-FILES # And there is a repository cache file: # $(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/repo-ttylinux.net pacman --repo=ttylinux.net --install --vers=9.1 busybox-1.15.3-i486.tbz # # Now there are a bunch of files in: # $(pwd)/p_root/bin/ # $(pwd)/p_root/sbin/ # $(pwd)/p_root/usr/bin/ # $(pwd)/p_root/usr/sbin/ # <etc> # And there is a package database file: # $(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/pkg-busybox-1.15.3-FILES # And there is a repository cache file: # $(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/repo-ttylinux.net # Merge the two packages and make a new single package. # cat $(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/pkg-bash-3.2.48-FILES \ $(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/pkg-busybox-1.15.3-FILES \ >$(pwd)/p_root/usr/share/ttylinux/pkg-new-stuff-FILES pacman --make new-stuff-i486.tbz # Show the new package binary file. # ls -hl new-stuff-i486.tbz exit 0
The /sbin/sysconfig shell script can be used to set, and to show, the fields in various ttylinux system configuration files; it can set or show any value for any "ITEM=value" line in any configuration file in the /etc/sysconfig and /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directories.
The following commands sets "ENABLE=yes" and "DHCP=yes" in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file.
sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.enable=yes sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.dhcp=yes
The "-nc" option in the above examples tells the sysconfig script to work on files in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory. The second option is in the form file.item=value.
To change the IP address of the Ethernet network interface, with 192.168.1.100 as the example IP address, with a netmask of 255.255.255.0 and standard subnet gateway and broadcast addresses, use the following sequence of sysconfig script commands.
sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.ipaddress=192.168.1.100 sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.network=192.168.1.0 sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.netmaks=255.255.255.0 sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.gateway=192.168.1.1 sysconfig -nc ifcfg-eth0.broadcast=192.168.1.255
Use "-sc" for the first option to the sysconfig script in order to work with system configuration files in the /etc/sysconfig directory.
Use the following command to get complete, up-to-date help description directly from /sbin/sysconfig
ttylinux does not directly support dial-up networking with PPP and has no support at all for ISDN. Previous versions of ttylinux did have PPP and ISDN support; their package structure is being re-organized and they may return in a later version of ttylinux.
ttylinux does have the PPP binaries: /usr/sbin/pppd and /usr/sbin/chat, but currently it is up to you to configure and use them.
Add-ons packages, such as thttpd a tiny web server, MIGHT be available at the ttylinux web site. There also are links to any known off-site ttylinux add-on resources. New add-ons submitted to ttylinux will be considered for inclusion at the web site.
The ttylinux package manager, pacman, has the ability to install add-ons directly from the ttylinux web site. Section 4.10 describes the pacman ttylinux package manager.
Reporting bugs in ttylinux and its documents is appreciated. For bug reports, suggestions, or anything else about ttylinux that you think is important, feel free to contact me. You can reach me by email at:
Douglas Jerome <[email protected]>
There is a web-based forum that is active from time to time; it is active when this was written, April 2010, and is intended to be active as long as minimalinux is supporting ttylinux, barring spammer abuse.
Help may be available on irc, although it is very low bandwith and usually more appropriate for inane banter.
Separate from the initscripts in /etc/rc.d/initd directory, the following table lists the ttylinux-specific scripts intended to be available for ttylinux root users.
|ifdown||/sbin||Shutdown Ethernet Network Interface|
|ifup||/sbin||Startup Ethernet Network Interface|
|service||/sbin||Execute a script in /etc/rc.d/init.d|
|shutdown||/sbin||Reboot or Shutdown the System|
|sysconfig||/sbin||Modify a System Configuration File|
|ttylinux-flash||/sbin||Copy ttylinux to Flash Disk|
|ttylinux-installer||/sbin||Install ttylinux onto A Disk|
|pacman||/usr/bin||ttylinux Package Manager|
How to Put ttylinux on a Flash Disk and Make it Bootable Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Douglas Jerome <[email protected]> FILE NAME $RCSfile: Flash_Disk_Howto.txt,v $ $Revision: 1.11 $ $Date: 2010/03/01 02:33:11 $ PROGRAM INFORMATION Developed by: ttylinux project Developer: Douglas Jerome, drj, <[email protected]> FILE DESCRIPTION This document is a guide to putting ttylinux on a flash disk and making the it bootable. CHANGE LOG 28feb10 drj Corrected for the latest CD-ROM layout and added timeout to the boot loaders to allow for boot options. 19dec09 drj Corrected the description of the two required flash drive directories. credit <[email protected]> 01sep09 drj Updated to be consistent with revised ttylinux-flash script and the CD-ROM directory and file structure. 07dec08 drj Changed some descriptions for using the syslinux executable program on the ttylinux CD-ROM. 04dec08 drj Added suggestions on mounting the CD-ROM and USB disk. 22nov08 drj Added failure path descriptions. Finished testing the installation processes. Added section numbers and the outline. 22nov08 drj Changed ram0 location from flash disk to /tmp. Fixed the device referenced by the syslinux command. Added description of lilo's anomalous behavior. Fixed the fdisk usage in the description of boot problems. 21nov08 drj Finished and baselined first version for ttylinux. ------------------------------------------------ How to Put ttylinux on a Flash Disk and Make it Bootable -- Document Outline -- 1. Preface 2. Introduction 3. Lilo Method 4. Syslinux Method 5. Automated Help 6. Boot Problems ========== 1. Preface ========== Caveat: The syslinux method is known to work with syslinux-3.72. Caveat: Instead of booting ttylinux, your flash disk may become unusable, but that is not known to have happened. Advice: Read before doing; reading does not take very long. Look at the end of this short document for problems and possible resolutions. =============== 2. Introduction =============== Flash disks include USB disks which are often called flash drives, pen drives, USB memory sticks, travel drives, etc. This file describes two methods of copying ttylinux from its bootable CD-ROM and putting it onto a flash disk that is also made bootable. The syslinux and lilo methods both can be done by ttylinux, but notice the syslinux program that makes the flash disk become bootable is not in the ttylinux file system, it is in the root directory on the ttylinux CD-ROM. These methods probably only make sense on a Linux system, particularly the lilo method. You should save all your data on the flash disk to somewhere else and then remove all files and directories from the flash disk. Making a mistake in this process can endanger any data on the flash disk. Also, if the Linux kernel is too far from the beginning of the flash disk memory it may not be bootable; this has nothing to do with where the file name is in a directory listing or in Windows explorer. You can format the flash disk to be a Linux file system, but leaving a USB disk in Windows format, probably vfat aka W95 FAT32, is very convenient. Prerequisites: Depending upon the method you use, you need to have privilege to write to the flash disk device e.g. /dev/sdc or to write to its mountable partition you want to use e.g. /dev/sdc1, and with the lilo method you need to create a device node. It is therefore very likely you need to be root. You need to *know* the flash disk device node e.g. /dev/sdc and its mountable partition you want to use e.g. /dev/sdc1. Read the previous sentence again, note the distinction between the disk and partition devices. In the following descriptions <disk> and <partition> are used to represent device nodes in the /dev directory. <disk> is the device node of the entire flash disk e.g. sdc, in which case /dev/<disk> represents /dev/sdc. <partition> is the device node of the mountable partition on the flash disk that you want to use to store the Linux kernel and ttylinux file system e.g. sdc1, in which case /dev/<partition> represents /dev/sdc1. In the following descriptions, /mnt/flash references the mount point in your file system to which the flash disk mounts. Your actual mount point may be different, substitute accordingly. A USB disk partition probably should be mounted with the following mount command. The second command gives you the UUID of the mounted partition, it may not work, but if it does then write down or otherwise save the UUID. $ mount -t vfat /dev/<partition> /mnt/flash $ blkid /dev/<partition> /mnt/cdrom represents the location of the mounted CD-ROM in the following descriptions. Have the ttylinux boot CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive and mount it. The CD-ROM should be mounted as type iso9660 e.g., mounted by the following command. $ mount -t iso9660 /dev/<disk> /mnt/cdrom If you have an image of the ttylinux CD-ROM mounted via loopback device, or have the files from the ttylinux CD-ROM in another directory, you can use that. In the following descriptions there are example commands; they are prefixed by a shell prompt of "$ ", and comments to shell commands begin with the shell comment character '#". ============== 3. Lilo Method ============== Warning: After performing this method subsequent uses of the syslinux method may have no affect, or misboot with odd errors, or the lilo boot loader may remain on the flash disk and continue to boot the kernel. I've never seen the syslinux method work after using this lilo method. There is a way to fix this; it is described at the end of the syslinux method. Mount the flash disk. The following description uses /mnt/flash to reference the mount point of the flash disk. Did you remember to first save everything you want to keep off the flash disk and remove everything from it? After mounting the flash disk, create two new directories named "boot" and "config" on the flash disk. $ mkdir /mnt/flash/boot $ mkdir /mnt/flash/config The flash disk should now have nothing on it except the two empty directories just made, /boot and /config. Copy the ttylinux Linux kernel and ttylinux file system image from the CD-ROM onto the flash disk; put them into the boot directory. $ cp /mnt/cdrom/boot/vmlinuz /mnt/flash/boot/ $ cp /mnt/cdrom/boot/filesys.gz /mnt/flash/boot/ $ cp /mnt/cdrom/config/ttylinux-setup /mnt/flash/config/ttylinux You need a ram0 device node for lilo to reference during the boot installation. If you don't have one in /dev then you need to make one somewhere; it is better to NOT make one in /dev in the case your system uses udev. You can make one in /tmp with the following command. $ mknod -m 660 /tmp/ram0 b 1 0 A lilo configuration file is needed. It is convenient to put it on the flash disk in the boot directory; the file is /mnt/flash/boot/lilo.conf. Use the following example lilo.conf file, changing <disk> and </mnt/flash> and </dev/ram0> to be the actual values. Use ttylinux-flash=<UUID> ONLY if you got the UUID when previously mounting the USB disk partition, replacing <UUID> with the actual UUID value. NOTE The location of the ram0 device is the actual one you want to use; if you didn't create one then it probably is /dev/ram0. NOTE Everything between the dashed lines is the /mnt/flash/boot/lilo.conf file. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- boot = /dev/<disk> disk = /dev/<disk> bios=0x80 map = </mnt/flash>/boot/map install = menu menu-scheme = Yb:Yk:kb:Yb menu-title = "LILO (LInux LOader) boot ttylinux" compact default = ttylinux lba32 prompt timeout = 150 image=</mnt/flash>/boot/vmlinuz append = "ro ttylinux-flash=<UUID>" label = ttylinux root = </dev/ram0> initrd = </mnt/flash>/boot/filesys.gz read-only ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- After the lilo.conf file is correct, execute lilo to make the flash disk bootable with these two commands. $ lilo -M /dev/<disk> mbr $ lilo -C /mnt/flash/boot/lilo.conf There probably are many possible problems. If there were no FATAL problems reported from lilo, unmount and reboot the flash disk. ---------------- Possible Problem ---------------- Lilo may detect a partition problem and give you message like the following: Warning: boot record relocation beyond BPB is necessary: /dev/sdc Added ttylinux * Fatal: LILO internal error: Would overwrite Partition Table -------------------- Possible Resolutions -------------------- If you have this problem you may want to do one of the following: => If you are using a USB disk then you can use a Windows-based USB boot disk tool; several are freely available. => Use a commercial partition tool to fix the flash disk partition table. => Use a different flash disk. ================== 4. Syslinux Method ================== You need to have the syslinux executable program. The root directory of the ttylinux CD-ROM should have the syslinux executable program from syslinux-3.72. Other syslinux sources: You may have it in your current linux distribution. Or you can get the latest version from http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/ and after untarring it, find the syslinux executable in the linux directory. Caveat: The syslinux method is only known by the author to work with syslinux-3.72; it probably works with newer versions and a few of the older versions. Mount the flash disk. The following description uses /mnt/flash to reference the mount point of the flash disk. Did you remember to first save everything you want to keep off the flash disk and remove everything from it? The flash disk should now have nothing on it. NOTE The following lilo fixup also fixes many USB disks that do not properly boot. NOTE If you are doing this with a flash disk that previously was booting from a lilo boot loader e.g., you previously used the above lilo method, then perform this lilo operation before continuing: $ lilo -M /dev/<disk> mbr Mount the flash disk. The following description uses /mnt/flash to reference the mount point of the flash disk. Did you remember to first save everything you want to keep off the flash disk and remove everything from it? After mounting the flash disk, create some new directories on the flash disk: $ mkdir /mnt/flash/boot $ mkdir /mnt/flash/boot/syslinux $ mkdir /mnt/flash/config Copy the syslinux help message files from the CD-ROM onto the flash disk. Copy the ttylinux Linux kernel and ttylinux file system image files from the CD-ROM onto the flash disk: $ cp /mnt/cdrom/boot/vmlinuz /mnt/flash/boot/ $ cp /mnt/cdrom/boot/filesys.gz /mnt/flash/boot/ $ cp /mnt/cdrom/boot/boot.msg /mnt/flash/boot/syslinux/ $ cp /mnt/cdrom/boot/help.msg /mnt/flash/boot/syslinux/ $ cp /mnt/cdrom/config/syslinux /mnt/flash/config/syslinux $ cp /mnt/cdrom/config/ttylinux-setup /mnt/flash/config/ttylinux A syslinux configuration file is needed. It must be put on the flash disk in the boot/syslinux directory; the file is /mnt/flash/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg. Use the following example syslinux.cfg file. Use ttylinux-flash=<UUID> ONLY if you got the UUID when previously mounting the USB disk partition, replacing <UUID> with the actual UUID value. Everything between the dashed lines is the /mnt/flash/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg file. long. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- default ttylinux display boot.msg prompt 1 timeout 150 F1 boot.msg F2 help.msg label ttylinux kernel /boot/vmlinuz append initrd=/boot/filesys.gz root=/dev/ram0 ro ttylinux-flash=<UUID> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Now make the flash disk bootable with syslinux; notice the partition device is used, not the disk device. $ syslinux -d boot/syslinux /dev/<partition> There probably are many possible problems. If there were no problems, unmount and reboot the flash disk. ---------------- Possible Problem ---------------- When executing the syslinux command you see an error message something like "Cluster sizes larger than 16K not supported". -------------------- Possible Resolutions -------------------- Install a more recent version of syslinux. ================= 5. Automated Help ================= It really is best to use the script described herein. For the automated help described below, both the CD-ROM and the flash disk must be mounted before executing the ttylinux-flash script. There is a shell script in the ttylinux file system that does a variation of the lilo and syslinux methods. Backup anything you want to keep from your flash disk before using the script. The script is invoked with a command line option telling it which method to use; guess which option does which. ttylinux-flash --lilo <CD-ROM path> <flash disk path> <flash disk device> ttylinux-flash --syslinux <CD-ROM path> <flash disk path> <flash disk device> The following command examples use the same conventions as above for the paths and device nodes. ttylinux-flash --lilo /mnt/cdrom /mnt/flash /dev/<disk> ttylinux-flash --syslinux /mnt/cdrom /mnt/flash /dev/<disk> If you want to run this script from a Linux system other than ttylinux, then run it from the ttylinux mounted at /mnt/cdrom, it will be /mnt/cdrom/sbin/ttylinux-flash. ================ 6. Boot Problems ================ General ------- Some flash disks seem to have a boot problem, something wrong with their zero block Master Boot Record (MBR). Run fdisk on the disk device /dev/<disk> to see if the Boot flag is set on the partition that has the Linux kernel, /dev/<partition>. # Check for the Boot flag # fdisk -l /dev/<disk> If the Boot flag is not set, use fdisk to toggle the bootable flag; the fdisk command is 'a'. The fdisk usage will look something like the following, if the partition with the Linux kernel is 1. $ fdisk /dev/<disk> Command (m for help): a Partition number (1-8): 1 Command (m for help): w It also is best to use this lilo command, after having used fdisk to set the partition bootable flag: $ lilo -M /dev/<disk> mbr Strange Lilo Boot Errors ------------------------ If you get part of the word LILO and then nothing or a repeating sequence of numbers or words, or if you get "Can't load operating system" or even nothing at all: put the flash disk back into the computer from wich you where loading it with ttylinux and try this lilo command: $ lilo -M /dev/<disk> mbr Try bootable again after executing the above command; if the flash disk still doesn't correctly boot, you may need to repeat either the lilo or syslinux method of installing ttylinux. [eof]